Natural variability of the climate system, in particular on seasonal and longer time scales, predominantly occurs with preferred spatial patterns and time scales, through the dynamical characteristics of the atmospheric circulation and through interactions with the land and ocean surfaces. Such patterns are often called regimes, modes, or teleconnections. Examples are the north atlantic oscillation (nao), the pacific-north american pattern (pna), the el niño-southern oscillation (enso), the northern annular mode (nam; previously called the arctic oscillation, ao), and the southern annular mode (sam; previously called the antarctic oscillation, aao). | Source: IPCC

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