A numerical representation of the climate system that is based on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of its components, their interactions, and feedback processes, and that accounts for all or some of its known properties. The climate system can be represented by models of varying complexity, that is, for any one component or combination of components a spectrum or hierarchy of models can be identified, differing in such aspects as the number of spatial dimensions, the extent to which physical, chemical, or biological processes are explicitly represented, or the level at which empirical parameterizations are involved. Coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (aogcms), also referred to as atmosphere-ocean general circulation models, provide a representation of the climate system that is near the most comprehensive end of the spectrum currently available. There is an evolution toward more complex models with interactive chemistry and biology. Climate models are applied as a research tool to study and simulate the climate, and for operational purposes, including monthly, seasonal, and interannual climate predictions. | Source: IPCC

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