A proxy climate indicator is a local record that is interpreted, using physical and biophysical principles, to represent some combination of climate-related variations back in time. Climate-related data derived in this way are referred to as proxy data. Examples of proxies include pollen analysis, tree ring records, characteristics of corals, and various data derived from ice cores. The term ‘proxy’ can also be used to refer to indirect estimates of present-day conditions, for example, in the absence of observations. | Source: IPCC

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